Tourism is an activity conducted b y individuals or a group of people which involves moving from one place to another. It may involve moving form one country to another to conduct as specific task, paying a place or several places a visit for the purposes entertainments and thus leading to awareness or gaining knowledge of other cultures, civilizations, history and the knowledge of other countries other the person’s country. Tourism has numerous effects such as direct and indirect impact on national revenues, creation of employment opportunities, and investments. This certainly raises the nation’s performance in addition to distributing its cultures traditions civilization and history. However, tourism comes along with several negative effects that affect the people and nations that host the tourists (Snyder 16). Such negative effects may at times make people develop a wrong perception of tourism. Tourism is provide the best alternative force for deriving economic development in the countries that host tourist or has tourist attraction
Truism has numerous economic benefits that can only be comparing to trade in precious metals. First, tourism support local economies and provides the local people with numerous economic opportunities (Snyder, 16). For instance, there are numerous opportunities for construction of hotels, restaurants, patronizing hotels, bus or transport companies and others which are owned by private investors (Stynes). These have further provided employment opportunities to the locals as drivers, tour guide, cooks, guards and other. For instance, in Polar many private investors have constructed numerous tourism facilities ranging from simple hotels to five star hostels (Snyder, 16). They also have restaurant and transport company, and employ the locals to work in the facilities. Shakaya (3) notes that tourism in Nepal sails in great recognition as the nation’s best instrument for alleviating poverty. This is because tourism great potential and numerous benefits especial to the Nepalese rural communities. Shakaya (3) adds that tourism creates an estimated 500, 000 jobs in this country.
According to Liu (43) tourism further supports the development of community services and facilities which might have been neglected. Such include improvement of health faculties, improvement of transport infrastructure such as reads. Lui (43) Reports that the Chinese Hainan Island and Anhui provinces were marginalized provincial backwaters but are now the center of attention in China having transformed to become special economic zones (SEZ). Furthermore, there is improvement of public space and increased availability of foreign commodities. All these serve to improve the living standards of he local communities.
Also the tourists who visit various tourist destinations also purchase various good from the local merchants. For instance, they purchase fruits from vender on streets and local products mostly handcrafts. Such tend to improve the economic wellbeing and the welfare of the locals (Stynes). In the developing countries, these tend to improve the welfare of women since it is women who participate in the making of handcrafts and sell them together with other locally produced goods such as fruits by the streets. Tourism further makes a place known to world. For instance, a tourist who visits a given tourisms hotspot is like to talk about it when he/she goes home consequently encouraging more visitors to visit the destination. The ensure that then cycle of visitors is kept a live hence continued economic earning
Cultural and linguistic exchange is yet another benefit brought around by tourism activities (Snyder, 16). In many places many people crave for foreign idea and exposure to foreign cultures. A lot of these people are unable to leave their countries to visit new destination and experience the culture in other countries. However, tourism brings the people from the other cultures to these countries. As a result the local get to learn much of the culture they wished to get exposed to by reacting with the tourist. Similarly, tourists who visit other countries get to learn the culture of the people in their destination countries. For instance, American tourists and Chinese tourists have different cultural practices perspectives which tend to impact differently on the tourism hot sports such as Vietnam in different ways (Lui, 29). Cultural exchange is a wonderful thing to both the visitor and the host as it create lifelong memories. The Chinese emphasize Confucianism which encouraged integrity and politeness (Lui, 27) while the American culture emphasizes forgiveness and cheerfulness (Lui, 28).
By boosting the local cultures, tourism boosts its preservation and transmission. It further enhances the preservation the historical traditions of the local communities. As a result, the local environment and heritage are conserved thus contributing greatly to the conservation of natural resources. This certainly encourages sustainable development (Elizabeth, 26). The local in this regard get to appreciate the finical value of the local cultural and natural site. A feeling of pride may arise as a result and further encourage the conservation of the environment thus preserving the national and local heritage. This is an indication that the maximum benefits of tourism can only be realized of it is practiced sustainably. The locals learn foreign languages spoken by the tourist and get to practice it every time they talk to the tourist who speaks the language. For instance, local communities in Bermuda get to practice and perfect their ability to speak languages such as English, French and others through interactions with tourists.
Unfortunately, if tourism isn’t practiced sustainably several negative impacts are likely to be felt. For instance, it can turn the local culture into consumable commodities consumed by the tourists. The traditional ethnic right, religious rituals and festivals can be demined and sanitized to meet the specific desire or expectations of the tourists. This kind of medaling with culture gives rise to what is referred to as “reconstructed ethnicity.”
Another risk involved it the risk of standardization of the destination in an attempt to satisfy the tourist. This may involve construction of specific facilities that are meant for tourists and ensuring that the landscape, the food, beverage and very other thing else provided to the tourists is of a specific standard (Elizabeth, 54). This may also involve modifying the environment to make it appear strange to the tourist that attract a flock of them to the destination. This can seriously harm the environment. Snyder (16) noted that there are serious concerns that tourism is promoting environmental degradation in the Polar Regions by placing extra pressure on land, wildlife, water and other basic necessities such as transportation facilities.
Tourism may also negative impact on the local culture by undermining it and encouraging it erosion thus leading to culture cash and some times conflicts between ethnic and religious groups (Snyder 18). In most cases, this is normal products of differences in cultures, languages lifestyles, levels of prosperity and others. Displacement of the local to provide space for construction of restaurants and other facilities is also common and it impacts negatively on the economic wellbeing, their culture and social standing. According to Donald et al (2004) cited by Liu (43) the host communities suffer negative effects of tourism such as congestion, soaring prices, deterioration of the environment and cultural assimilation.
Tourism development confers the tourism destination nations numerous political and economical benefits. The countries earn foreign currency and the locals also earn money through the sale of locally produced goods thus improving their welfare. Tourism further provides employment to the locals; facilitate cultural exchange and much more. However, these benefits can only be realized if tourism is practiced sustainably. Otherwise, an equal magnetite of negative effects shall be realized.