The Concept of Learning
Learning is the active process of constructing knowledge which one performs naturally. All people do not have the same understanding capacity hence some can not learn on their own. This sets a base for the need for guidance and support. The information must be relayed to the student so that learning occurs. Many students attend school with different aims and all are different in terms of understanding and talent and therefore each teacher must employ different teaching methods so as to achieve the goal of learning.
Scope of learning
For teaching to be a success various strategies and techniques which includes engaging, motivating and energizing the student and generally presenting the materials properly should be applied. To create a deeper, swifter and effective learning process the teacher and student may use several pedagogical methods. These are discussions, simulations, mimicry, role-plays, problem solving questions, quizzes, and meta-learning tasks, e.g. mind-maps, and construction of mnemonics. Styles involved in learning are generic and include; cognitive, personality, learning, sensory modes, and typologies (Boyd, & Murphey, 2004 para.1). Most of the learning styles depend on the topic to be covered and the one covering the topic. Scientific subjects require very different concepts than arts since science will involve practical lessons to enhance the student’s understanding.
As cited in Boyd & Murphy (2004) learning styles is the processing of information so that the learner may change in the mode of perceiving, thinking, problem- solving and remembering. They may be designed to guide students struggling academically or to suit the diversity of learning in a class.
Learning modalities deals with the conveying of the message or information required in to the minds or brains, through visual, aural, or tactful means. Cognitive learning styles deals with the way information is processed once it reaches the mind or brains. Personality learning styles are the individual’s personal characteristics expressed in general ways.
There are different dimensions of learning, and learning involves four levels that are progressive. The first level is the personality traits of the learner. The second level is the information processing; which is the reception and processing of the information. The third level is the social interactions, this relates to students relations and actions in the classroom. The fourth level deals with instructional environment and the reference of students in terms of instructions. There are two types of learners described under the cognitive models; the holistic or global and the serial or sequential. Those who prefer learning through logical steps and finally merging all the information to build the final image are the serial learners. Holistic learners prefer to get the final image first and then link the small parts of the framework to the final image.
There are various types of software that have been developed for learning which is called e-learning. These soft wares replace the concept of face to face learning and make the student get involved in personal study through a personal computer. Examples of these softwares include Coppercore, edubox, eduplone, LAMS, lobster, reload software among others (Rendell, 1986). Each of these software’s has a different aspect in the concept of learning and they are analyzed in terms of the description purpose or scope, what is it used for; this includes the users of the software e.g. teachers, learners application developers. The activity, management and work flow of the software, the sharing and reuse of the software, the user interface, and the integration and licensing.
Learning and performance
There are factors that affect learning which are; the amount of practice, the amount of reward, delay of reward, partial reinforcement, and inter-stimulus time. Factors that influence performance include; motivation, stimulus intensity effort, and inter-trial intervals. The difference between learning and performance include; while learning activities are designed to develop knowledge and skills that enhance understanding performance is designed to assess the understanding which made the units be provided (Feldman, 2003). Learning is focused and formative and aims at acquiring specific elements of knowledge while performance is complex and culminating and is measures the student’s integration of knowledge, skills and understanding of the concepts.
Learning can only be of one or two facets of understanding while performance can be based on six facets. Performance can be accomplished by students who have developed the desired level of understanding while learning can be attained by students who have are engaged in learning, receive appropriate instructions and those who have prior understanding of the unit. In learning students have to demonstrate comprehension of knowledge and the application of skills while in performance they must involve thinking and apply their understanding flexibly, with insight and good judgment (Feldman, 2003). In learning there is assessment at the knowledge, skill and/or application level while in performance assessment is at the levels of analysis, synthesis, and/or evaluation.
In performance assessment there are complex, authentic challenges that the student face in the real world while in learning assessment is done on factual information, discrete skills, and concepts. In learning assessment is mainly clearly structured and involves answers while in performance it involves judgment and a known criterion of standards and rubrics.
Learning in the school set depends on many aspects so as to be successful. Both the teacher and student must be actively involved to make both learning comprehensive and beneficial. The teacher should never neglect the responsibilities given to him/her so that the future of the student becomes bright and hopeful, the teacher should aim to enhance performance at all subjects.