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Reproductive ethics

Introduction

The normal period that most pregnancies take is approximately nine months for most women. In most cases, it is hoped that, after this period the pregnant woman gives birth to a normal child. According to McCullough & Chervenak ( 1994), expectations varies from time to time depending on the circumstances, some types of pregnancy ends prematurely by themselves a situation that is referred to as miscarriage but some doctoral terms such as spontaneous abortion are applied to mean the same thing.

If an operation is carried out successfully in the attempt to end the pregnancy, then under the medical context it is referred to as induced abortion

The following are some of the conditions under which abortion is allowed as explained by Rahman e ta l (1998).

Medical conditions

  • If the pregnant woman is suspected to have ectopic pregnancy. Another closely related case to this is the presence of undiagnosed adnexal mass. These conditions occur in cases when the ovum is fertilized but settles in the reproductive organ system but outside the uterine cavity where the development of the foetus may advance abnormally in positions outside the uterus, possibly in the fallopian tube, in the ovary, and sometimes behind the uterus. This condition of ectopic pregnancy may be extremely dangerous if unchecked. Its common symptoms include; smaller uterine size in relation to the pregnancy period estimation, pain in the lower abdomen accompanied by severe vaginal bleeding, frequent dizziness, some cases are due to the presence of adnexal mass.
  • Another dangerous situation that normally calls for abortion is when the expectant woman is undergoing coagulopathy or when the patient has been prescribed for the anticoagulant therapy
  • The case of severe adrenal failure and more so if it involves use of systemic corticosteroids by the expectant woman.
  • The case of hypertension condition that is extremely uncontrolled with a registered blood pressure of more than 160/100mmHg during the first trimester.
  • If the expectant woman is suffering from cardio-vascular complications which includes diseases like angina, valvular disease, and the case of arrhythmia.
  • the expectant patient may also be suffering from severe renal and kidney failures, liver complications or severe respiratory diseases.
  • In case of severe anemic conditions with the blood hemoglobin registering less than 8 gm %.
  • The disorders such as the uncontrolled foetal seizure may also guarantee abortion.
  • Abortion may be carried out in case of allergic complications or the continued intolerance to mifepristone conditions (misoprostol), and the prostaglandins.

Humanitarian conditions

Humanitarian conditions allows for abortion on the first on the grounds when the pregnant woman conceived out of rape and only on request for the pregnancy termination by the affected woman. Secondly, on the socio-economic situation that may adversely affect the mother.

Conclusion

The professional advisory to most expectant women is to seek diagnosis especially cervical cytology services from qualified gynecologists that will check the effects of diseases such as the sexually transmitted infections and cervical cancer.

Abortion has become a worldwide issue of concern, which has prompted legislations by the lawmakers of different nationalities to device rules and regulations to curb the rising cases of abortion. The case for India led to the enactment of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy act (MTP) in early 1971, this Act serves to control morbidity and mortality effects associated with abortion. This law has describes the permissible conditions for abortion, the qualifications of the medical practitioners and safe places to carry out abortion.

In other parts of the world, the laws obligates the governments to offer free access to birth control methods, provision of social, legal assistance services and medical to the expectant women.

Abortion is termed as unethical by the pro-life movements all over the world, these movements’ advocates for the provision of information on birth control, procreating responsibly, the respect for family values, and the life of unborn child. CRR (2005)