The American Public Health Association (APHA) is one of the most divers and oldest organization of public health professionals around the globe, and they have been working with objectives of improving public health sector since 1872. The Association protects all Americans, their communities and their families from avoidable, grave health threats and strives to provide community-based health encouragement; disease prevention measures and precautionary health services are not readily accessible in the United States. APHA represents a wider range of health professionals. The organization builds a communal voice for public health, working to guarantee access to health care, protect funding for core public health services and eradicate health disparities, among a numerous of other issues.
According to the APHA article report assessed the U.S preparedness for any disaster after the Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attack. Public health was underfunded, but after the Sept attack national’s health system have reversed their trend and better prepared the public health system in the event of a disaster. The report further suggested that despite improvement in public health readiness for disaster additional attention should be considered such as; addressing poverty, social injustice and health disparities that may contribute to the development of terrorism, providing humanitarian assistance and protecting human rights of civilian population of all nations that are directly or indirectly affected by terrorism, since human rights violation such as violence against children and women can have a serious health consequence.
The U.S government should strengthen the public health infrastructure including laboratory and information systems, other components of the public health like education, workforce, research and faith community to increase the capability to identify, respond, and prevent the problems of public health importance. Educating and informing health professionals and the public to better identify, respond, and prevent the health consequences of terrorism, and promote the visibility and availability of health professionals they serve, ensuring the protection of environment, water supply, food, health and safety of rescue and recovery team, and clarification of the roles, responsibilities and relationship among the health agencies, first responders and law enforcement help greatly in disaster preparedness.
The article further suggested that the public health capacity to develop system to collect data about the health and mental health consequences of terrorism and other disasters on victims should be build to help in busting the readiness for the disasters. Ethnic and religious discrimination should be avoided but cultural competence, diversity training, and dialogue among people should be promoted to avoid the cases of terrorism attacks. The government should also ensure availability, accessibility to health care including vaccines and medications for individuals exposed, infected, made ill, or injured in terrorist attacks as a way of showing well disaster preparedness.
2: Disaster preparedness plan (Natural disaster)
Disasters are classified in two broad categories, the man-made disasters and natural disasters. Natural disasters include; floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, or earthquakes. Prevention of natural disasters is not a possible task, but measures such as good planning which involve mitigation measures can greatly help to reduce or a void loss. The threats of the natural disasters calls for preparedness plan to help minimize the loss of life and property in the event of disaster occurrence. Bellow is an example of disaster preparedness plan;
Element 1: Assessment of the natural disaster exposer.
Element 2: Establishing natural disaster monitoring, research prediction institution.
Element 3:Natural disaster communication and support network.
Element 4: Emergency rescue services and response plan
Element 5:System specific information
Element 6:Provision of Trainingand safety to staff
3: Public health issue in community involve prevention of diseases, promoting health through planned efforts and informed choices of society, individuals and communities and prolonging life. To efficiently overcome the health issues in the community there are facilities and resources that are required (Kramer, 2006). The population may be large increasing the need for the resources, thus calling for incorporation between the community and other agencies to provide a combined force. There are a number of ways that would help create efficiency and synergies in providing solution for public health issues in the community which include; involving the community in campaign of control and prevention in case of a pandemic, education to the members of the community about the precautions and measures in managing a disease.
Increased need for resources will call for the community cooperation with other agencies like during any disaster the communities have been collaborating with WHO (world health organization) in providing emergency health services. Another way is through making all the necessary health facilities readily accessible by the public, involving communities in medical research and assessing health trends.
Strengths and weaknesses of applying the systems approach in Public Health
Public health system approach focuses on changing interaction between the systems that affect crashes and injuries, these systems are; social services, healthcare, transportation, law enforcement, and other disciplines.
The strength of the systems approach in public health involves the following; preventing health and functional impairments from restricting mobility and causing driving cessation, creating environment and system that support safe mobility for all seniors and also promoting theories that clarify why some health intervention are not as effective as others and can help create an intervention that have higher chances of success .
Lack of required resources hinders the efficient implementation of the approach. It is also susceptible to under implementation. There are inadequate training programs about the public health system approach.