Language Development free essay example
The domains of language include the steps that one goes through as they learn a certain language. Different communities use language differently hence; language acquisition becomes diverse. Language has several domains that guide the development as well as acquisition process. This is the domain of discourse that deals with the multilingual as well as multilingual setting of a specific societal setting. At one level domain is a concrete setting like the home, the street, the classroom, a shop, university, religious institution, the media etc. More plausibly, the determinant of using one language variety over another is not the physical setting alone, but the general activity (“event”) conventionally associated with the setting. So “church” stands for the range of activities associated with religion. In some societies this domain calls for a switch to another language
The Listening Domain is one of the domains of language. Listening is a process thus when a person listens he or she strives to comprehend oral communication as presented by a speaker and accompanied by body language and/or visual/graphic clues. The listener must interpret what he/she hears and evaluate spoken language in a variety of situations, such as in social encounters, in everyday functional situations such as in restaurants and transportation hubs, in job or career-related settings, as well as in academic settings. It is common for beginning additional language students to spend significant amounts of time listening prior to attempting to produce speech of their own. This is often called the “silent period.” Language learners at all levels will vary widely in their ability to listen, understand, and interpret auditory language in a variety of settings and situations. In order for a child to become proficient, there must be guided practice in active, interpretive listening. This practice must take place in a variety of settings and for a variety of purposes for example, listening to social conversations, to multi-step directions, lectures in class.
Speaking domain is also an essential domain among the four. It entails giving maximum concentration to the speaker. However, when learning a language – even within native language development; there can also be extensive differences in the “jargon” or “lingo” that is used regionally as well as occupationally. Learners of a new language need to engage in much practice with the native speakers in order to familiarize with the language. For instance one learning a foreign language may endeavor to speak the language any time he/she is in the midst of the natives. This gives a room for correction of the wrong words. Making presentations, reciting poems, as well as singing is another way to improve one’s speaking skills.
Reading and writing are the other domains of language. For a child to grow well parents and caregivers should correct the mistakes they make. This helps them improve their avenue for more learning. Teachers in school should also make all efforts to ensure the roots of language acquisition are deep. The purpose of the observation was to learn how kids learn language from the time of birth to a fully matured adult who can communicate properly.
The appropriate methods to collect such data were interview, observation and survey. The gender that was observed was males and females. Their age ranged from 14-20 months and the other group of children ranged from two and a half years to three and a half years. The setting was in town and the primary schools in the area. One should gather the children and give them quizzes, both written and spoken to determine the level of language they have learnt.
The observation made in the communication pattern of a toddler and the care giver shows some familiarity with the objects mentioned. The toddler learns much through imitation from the people he/she is used to on daily basis. The pre-school kids have learnt some language to la certain level hence, are on the process of learning more.
The observations made were as expected from the researcher. The society plays a lot the development of language to the kids as they have the original context of language. A child starts by learning the mother’s language before learning the rest of the languages. This lays a basic foundation for easier in the prospect. If I was to carry out the study again, I would look at how language develops in children under the age of four years to eight years.
Child 1 (14 – 20 months)
Response of the mother and others
Child 1(14-20 months)
Ma, ma, ma/pa, pa, pa, crying.
The child is with the mother or sometimes with the house-help. This is a way of communicating.
The mother responds by understanding what the child wants. The child may be hungry, or sick.
Child 2 (16 months)
Mama, papa, dada, cu-cu (grandmother)
The child stays with relatives or grandparents.
The mother may give the child some food, breastfeed the kid or even embrace the kid.
Response of others
Excitement when she sees a new toy car. The child may also be confused on how to handle the toy.
The child also loves to imitate what the parents do as well as the other siblings in the house like washing, re-arranging things from cabinets, wall units and other storage areas.
Deictic gestures which include; pointing, showing, offering/giving and ritualized requesting (extending the arm
with hand open, palm-up)
the child points and vocalizes ‘da’ to the mother to point to a toy.
The child raises all palms to indicate “all gone” once she/he finishes taking some juice or milk. The kid may also wave both hands to as a symbol of goodbye.
The kid is with other kids in the house or the other siblings. They understand the child’s language.
The kid is with other house help who understands the kid’s interests.
Children are with parents, care-givers and other siblings.
Parents understand the language the kids use at any stage of life probably due to previous experience. This helps them be able to respond to their needs.
The siblings should green and show some excitement to the child. The parents may show the kids how to play with the toys.
The house-help may give the child some clothes to play with or even some toys. This helps capture his/her attention.
Response of others
Give the children what she points at if it is safe to her. For sharp objects, one may avoid giving them to the kids.
The mothers and care givers may give the child more of whatever she was taking.
If the child waves at you, one should wave back at her to show that you appreciate what they do to you.
Child 2 (Preschooler (2 ½ to 3 ½ years)
At home to ask for food. Correct the child.
At home when playing with other siblings.
The child wants to leave
Outside . correction is essential
When playing outside
At home . the child loves to play with domestic animals
When eating or sees someone with a banana
In a book when reading in class
When bathing at home.
When taking milk at home.
Used to play while playing with other kids.
The parent or the teacher should correct the child.
Daddy came to see it in the garden.
Daddy comed to see it in the garden.
If the child talks to mummy and daddy.
Can I put it in like that?
Can me put it in like that?
I can see mummy and daddy in the house.
I can see Mummy and Daddy in the .
Incomplete sentence when kids run out of ccontext.
Put in box .
The kid may be asking the mother what to do with a certain equipment.
Fall down from the car
When describing something.
When asking for something.
It just got broke
It just got brokened.
Reporting to the parent.
You better not do that
You bettern’t do that
Warning from imitation of what parents tell them.
My hand is bigger than Ben’s
My hand’s the biggest than Ben’s.
When socializing with peers.
That’s the man’s car
That’s the mans’s car.
Kids admire cars drawn in books or when they see them.
Mummy, can I have the ball?
Mummy please me has ball?
When requesting for something.
It is not your ball
It is not you ball
When fighting for play toys with other kids.
When playing out