A theory is the provision of general explanation for the observations made over the time while a model is the mental picture which helps in the understanding of something we can’t see or experience directly. In the case below observed in a class setting of students and the learning environment (Albert, 2005). The theories observed and were put into practice.

The educational theories employed were

First we have behaviorism theory. These theories for learning are based on the observation and changes in behavior. It focuses on new behavioral pattern that repeats itself until it becomes automatic (Albert, 2005). The cognitive is another theory observed in learning and its based on the thought process that behind behavior.  The changes in behavior are observed and are used as indicators as what happens inside learners mind. The last theory of learning are is constructivism theory. It is based on premise we all construct our own world perspective through experiences from individuals and the schema as Albert asserts. Learning theory has been effective in the class observation. We see learning as a process and it takes place over and over. Learning is also considered as a process that behavior keeps on changing as result from time to time experience.

Which educational theories could have been used to better enhance instruction and learning?

To enhance the learning and instruction the theory that is used mostly is behaviorism theory.  This theory allows a student to learn through observation. Behavior patterns are observed in that the learner is allowed to watch or observe the patterns of behavior which repeats itself till its automatic. When the students are in class they mostly learn through observation and when the pattern goes on and on it sticks in their memory allowing then to memorize (Albert, 2005). They also observe and can give instructions when asked to for they memorize the pattern due to repeat.

How practical is the application of educational theories in the classroom?

When a student is able to memorize and can learn very fast through following instructions, it means that there is observational theory that is involved in the process. Also when students in class are able to complete the assignments given to them by the teachers it suggests that they have developed mentally thus cognitive theory applied through that. To add on that there is constructivism theory whereby the students are able to come up with new ideas after the teacher gave out an assignment in class (Altvater and Mahnkopf, 1997).

As Altvater and Mahnkopf suggests on how educational theories are applied in classes by teachers, it is a daily routine that goes on in school and students playing a centre stage in the application processes. When the student and the teacher interact the learning theory is applied. When one asks a question and the teacher answers learning takes place. Acquisition of learning is always seen going on all the time, it concretes the immediate and confines specific activities and not concerned with general principles (Altvater and Mahnkopf, 1997). When students share experiences with one another learning takes place in that the theory of learning as a process comes in.

Describe the application of information processing to student learning

Information processing is the ability of a person to think critically and creative and be able to make decision. Information processing depends with how you input/output data to the benefits of you and others. As a student information retrieved is supposed to be translated depending on his understanding ability. He should be capable of defining information processing and forward to the available group (Altvater and Mahnkopf, 1997). IP cycle signifies how information is being retrieved by a student and passes through different stages. Information moves from cognitive strategies to cognitive tactics then is being sent to effectors which are being transferred to the environment. From the environment it’s being triggered by stimuli to the receptors which are sent to the short term memory and then to the long term. In the end automated skills process them to the response generator.  Student should be able to relate the information with computer technology and state how it can benefit the society.

How the theory information processing does applied to student learning

Information processing theory applied on a student depending on the situation of the environment which affects the thinking of the learner hence matters a lot on the attention of the student. It also apprehend on how information is being stored to the distinct memories of the brain. Theory information processing explains how the minds function in different responses. There are three memories in a learner that help to justifies the theory information processing. Cognitive theory includes; long-term memory, sensory memory and working memory. When the learner acquires knowledge it’s encoded and stored to the long term memory (Altvater and Mahnkopf, 1997). Cognitive theory states that information encode, the learner uses the knowledge to come up with his own ideas that are meaningful and useful to the society. When the learner is exposed to different type of environment, it increases his/her ability to think and reason hence he can be able to create his own hypothesis about the study he carried out.

How does the classroom environment affect the information processing and learning for adolescent?

In 2002 Stiffer in his book on the learning processes explained how the environment in classes’ affect the processes by which information and learning are involved both positively and negatively. He went ahead stating that, Information processing and learning for adolescent is being affected by the classroom environment in different ways. Environment which is high linked to technology influenced the adolescent youth than those who have no access to internet. (Stiffer, 2002) The student is prompt to many links of the internet thus his memory acquisition is not used as expected since a lot data is being stored to the computer. The information processing also affect the young adults since there is no a lot of exposure to environment hence lack ability to think critically. The information which is stored in the working memory is easily retrieved from the short term memory before being sent to the long term memory due to the influence of the technology. Information which is highly retrieved is more associated with many links. It also lower the concentration of the adolescent youth since most the time he depends on information gathered on the internet hence resulting to poor performance (Stiffer, 2002).

The behavioral of the young adults also changes due to the exposure of illicit materials which he has learned due to the information processing and data gathered from the internet. Classroom environment also affects the information processing in a positive ways. This includes; attention being apprehended by the students hence boosts concentration in class due to new discoveries and invention of the internet.  It also helps the student to identify new techniques that will help to discovered things on there on hence perfecting on them. Due to teaching strategies being changed young adults create a lot of interest hence creating an easy environment for learning as asserted by Stiffer.  Young adults whose environment is not prompt to internet lack adequate skills and knowledge that they may use to innovative new techniques (Stiffer, 2002).

Compare adolescent student learning in a social environment and an educational environment. Which is more conducive to attention and memory?

Adolescents should be put in an educational environment because the effective nature of this kind of environment compared to the social environment and many educational psychologists recommend the same. The study of how human learn in educational settings has come up with quite a number of reasons to why adolescents should be put in an educational environment .First, Stiffer believed to be very effective in the sense that there are very few distractions unlike a social environment where adolescents succumb to peer pressure and share myths and other believes which could be untrue hence misleading each other (Stiffer, 2002).

In an educational setting there is an adult is responsible and there fore at least concerned with the progress of students and how students learn and develop. When students have something doubtful they consult and the teacher as an authority corrects misconceptions unlike in a social environment where there is no guiding structures and mechanisms for evaluating progress as stated by Stiffer.

In an educational setting teacher often focus on subgroups for instance gifted children who happen to be fast learners are given little attention and those subject to specific handicaps or disabilities given more time and special treatments like after class coaching to help them catch up. In social settings students are let loose and may engage in behavior that is frowned upon hence having low moral standards or indiscipline while in an educational setting student get corrected (Stiffer, 2002). As much as social environments may encourage creativity in adolescents and allow them to develop other aspects of their personality like developing the right sexuality ,an educational environment still benefits a adolescents in many other numerous ways for instance in matters like responsibility, discipline and accountability (Stiffer, 2002). Educational environments encourage maturity in amore responsible way and it equips adolescents with rational ways of handling situations because its amore controlled environment with rules and regulations clearly stipulated for students to live by .students have to adhere to them to the latter.

Evaluate teacher behaviors that promote students’ thinking abilities.

There is quite a number of behavior s that most teachers engage in while in class which in many ways promote students thinking abilities. Teachers ought to engage in behaviors that promote critical and creative thinking in students. The concept of creativity in an educational context helps in highlight the importance of a teacher’s role in providing that condusive classroom environment to develop thinking abilities (Alexander and Anderson, 1998).

Teachers who show a humanistic approach while in class seem to have developed their own unique and creative competencies which they combine with some specific creative methods and techniques which make them more effective as far as enhancing students’ thinking abilities are concerned. Teachers who use more traditional instructional methods seem to be having problems with imparting knowledge and helping students to improve their thinking abilities.

In 1998 Alexander and Anderson went ahead researching on the ways to manage and control a class and stated that, Classroom management skills and keenly monitoring student conduct is necessary for a teacher and they are encouraged to practice and hone them over time. These skills require some time to jell .Effective teaching that promotes thinking abilities requires some skill in harnessing and managing the many tasks and situations which occur in class each day.

Skills like effective classroom environment management are very important to teaching and they require consistency in common sense and some sense of fairness, and open ended question to evaluate their content grasping abilities. The teacher is required to have an in-depth understand of the subject matter and in more than one way. The teacher too is required to know the psychological and the developmental levels of the students. Students should be encouraged through practice, provide feedback, and willingness to learn from mistakes as asserted by Alexander and Anderson.

A good teacher who is interested in helping student to develop thinking abilities should know what he /she want and what he /she doesn’t want in class. He /she should show students what he/she wants and when they get it should acknowledge when students do it. Lastly he /she should give personalized attention to each student.

What teacher behaviors did you observe that facilitated student comprehension and reasoning?

The behavior of the teacher that facilitated the comprehension reasoning was when the students asked questions, the teacher went ahead explaining and also ensured that the students understands well meaning that the teacher was elaborative. Also through interpreting and giving his own life experiences, the teacher was sociable and rich in emotions when he expressed what he felt afterwards, that made the students develop comprehensive reasoning and became holistically developed (Alexander and Anderson, 1998).

Analyze the implications of language development for teaching and learning.

How does delayed language development affect teaching?

During teaching activity delayed language development affect teaching due to lack of understanding between the teacher and the learner.  The teacher has a great responsibility to use all communication skills to enable the learner to understand what is being taught. Alexander and Anderson went ahead explaining on how teachers should be keen on dealing with education matters in classroom and the way students understand. During the process the syllabus covered up is being delayed because of lack of understanding. The learner is supposed to be taught how to right grammar by combining words alphabetically hence consume a lot of time.  He must also be taught how to Wright words in category to make a sentence which affect teaching since the teacher has to motivate the learner to be able to understand (Alexander and Anderson, 1998).

The teacher has to improve on visual relationship by using gestures on the learner to bring out the meaning hence create chances of understanding. Most of the teachers are prompt to few languages hence they are not profitable to people who are not unique to their languages which hinders teaching. A student who has language delayed becomes more frustrated and becomes more disruptive in class which may lead to poor performance hence affect teaching program. Classes which has students who have delayed language may end up perform poorly academically.

Which teacher behaviors impeded student comprehension and reasoning?

The teacher’s behaviors observed by the teacher that impeded comprehension and the reasoning of the students was how he handled students with antisocial behavior by punishing them without sense of humanity ensuring that they separated from others and be given heavy punishments e.g. whipping them with no mercy. The reasoning was impeded in that they thought any mistake done was to be condemned to hefty punishment and these made the fear to learn through exploration. Teacher’s hostility was a big problem that made them develop fear of interacting with others freely to avoid facing the consequences (Alexander and Anderson, 1998).

Why did these teacher behaviors negatively affect students’ thinking abilities?

The thinking ability of students was greatly affected with the teachers’ behavior in that the negative side of the teacher also reflected itself on the students. When the students learned that their teacher was harsh and could not entertain or give chance to any wrong committed by them through the type of punishments the teacher gave them.  Also their thinking ability was affected by them because, for them any mistake according to them is punishable and correction is through whips from the teacher and by doing these the mental capacities were tempered with thus poor thinking capacities.

How does language development affect learning in children and adolescents?

When language is involved in learning of adolescents, it plays a major role in both education and development. The students tend to develop holistically and gain much when they develop their language. In children language development affects them both negatively and positively in that they learn understand and express themselves well while in classroom through good communication between them and the teacher and that applies to the adolescents who through good communication skills they understand and express what themselves in proper way ensuring they pass information required to the teachers or instructors (Alexander and Anderson, 1998).

Describe the relationship of social and emotional development to student learning and behavior.

When a student develops socially there is emotional development also. The antisocial behavior may also be merged with emotions. When students learn and develop social skills they manage to control themselves in every situation that they found themselves. When a student is emotionally disturbed it tend to influence the social behavior in an environment. Development of social skills means the ability to interact and control bad behavior e.g. controlling the emotions through solving matters amicably thus relation between good social skills (Alexander and Anderson, 1998).

In conclusion, the theories of education ought to be applied in any classroom setting to ensure that students learn effectively in every stage of their education process.

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