Impacts of Produced Water Discharges
The article, A white Paper describing Produced Water from Production of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Coal Bed Methane is informative on produced waster or formation water that are accompanied with either crude oil or hydrocarbons. According to the article produced water can be defined as the water found underground in rocks reservoirs containing petroleum products or hydrocarbon. The water is in high volume and has been a challenge to organizations like Department of Energy in the United States in its management. This culminates to consumption of a significant resource during production or exploration of either crude oil or hydrocarbons found underground.In addition to high cost of managing produced water the due to its various components coupled with high quantity levels the water has intense environmental implications. According to the article the fact that fossil fuel deposits are found within high volumes of water underground it is difficult to avoid produce water during exploration of the products. However, the department is in the fore front towards establishing avenues to mitigate the menace associated with the by product of crude oil and hydrocarbons.
Impacts of Produced Water Discharges and discharging it in Marine Environment
Notably, it is important to know that produced water comprises of various components. Also, produced water composition is highly influenced by the geographical area the petroleum deposits are found. Therefore, both the physical and chemical composition of produced water varies in various geographical locations thus the environmental implication of produced water varies from place to place. From this perspective it is a challenge to resolve the high quantities of produced water as well as to ensure the environment is free from degradation. Implication of produced water discharge has adverse effects on the environment and can be evaluated from two distinct perspectives. Evaluating implication of produced water discharged to land reveal diverse negative consequences on the fluid.
Notably, the composition as well as concentration of both chemical and physical components of produced water varies. However, regardless of produced water concentration the product poses to be an environmental hazard. Discharging produced waster on land the crops are adversely affected and the contamination eventually affects animal after consumption plants with produced water deposits. The scope of adverse effects caused by produced waster is highly influenced by temperature, organic substance dissolved as well as the level of acidity. Implication of contaminating marine environment with produced water entails subjecting aquatic organisms to both chemical and physical components found in produces water. Various factors influence the scope of adverse effects on both aquatic animals and plants. The scope of reactivity chemicals in produced water influences formation of precipitates as well as degradation of aquatic organisms. The fact that volume of produced water is remarkably high implication to the marine environment is scandalous and toxicity is produced based on reactions or decomposition of chemical.In addition, the components of produced water can consist of toxins that have adverse consequences on both aquatic vegetation and animals in marine environment.
Acute and Chronic Toxicity
The level of toxicity of produced water can be evaluated from two distinct perspectives based on the scope of negative impacts of the water. The acute toxicity emanating from produced water entails short effects on the environment degradation especially in the marine environment. According to the article the aromatic petroleum products as well as a considerable portion of soluble hydrocarbons contribution to sources of acute toxins found in produced water. In addition exploration of petroleum products in the sea involved contamination of sea water by crude oil as well as grease. The articles highlights separations of produced water with crude oil involved deployment of chemicals that have are toxins. Also, sources of acute toxins emanates from geographical discharge of the water. Notably, discharging the water in sea culminates to hazardous biological consequences on the aquatic animals. From the perspective of the article acute toxin mainly have adverse effects on aquatic organisms from a biological perspective.
According to the article chronic toxicity is rarely deployed in evaluating the scope of toxicity. However, chronic toxicity emanates from high concentration chemical components in produced water as well as intense contamination with the environment. Discharge on offshore of sea has been termed as the core source of chronic toxicity especially to aquatic organisms. Testing on level toxins especially in water bodies acts as the basis of evaluating whether toxicity is chronic based of pre-established standards. From the finding of the article the evaluation of chronic toxicity from produced water is based on diverse parameters in the globe. For instance both evaluation of chronic toxicity and responsive measure deployed in Norway and Gulf of Mexico varies.
Impacts of Discharging CBM Produced Waters and Other Issues
Produced water associated with Coal Bed Methane (CBM) has diverse implication to the environment. According to the article the level of dissolved component influences impacts of the water to the environment. From this perspective CBM based produced water can culminate to adverse effects not only to the ecosystem but also to natural resources in areas exploration is active. Discharge of CBM based produced water culminates to hardship in filtration of water as well as intense increase of salt tolerant aquatic animals. In addition due to alteration of genetic structure of organization caused by produced water emanating from Coal Bed Methane the native plants in the society can eventually become extinct. Also due to high solubility of oxygen in CBM produced water deficiency of oxygen in surface water develops. Regarding other impacts associated with produces water, it has been revealed that the increasing quantities of produced water in production of petroleum based products can eventually culminate to difficulty in treating the water before discharge. In addition the article reveals that the high content of produced water make evaluation of produced water based on its components difficult hence reducing toxicity becomes a challenge.