Cultural anthropology or socio-cultural anthropology is the holistic study humanity. This branch of Cultural anthropology has developed and promoted culture and cultural variation among humans through scientific concepts. Culture is human nature that helps people to classify their experiences, encode classifications symbolically, and teach others as anthropologists argue.
Humans being acquire culture through learning, and through culture people can adapt to their environment in non-genetic ways. This led to people living in different environments to adopt different cultures. To effectively acquire the right culture individuals should be willing to become sensitized to the interests of others and totally avoid circumstances which solely oriented interests for self-interest. Human should become sensitized to how their actions may jeopardize or threaten the lives and interests of others in the society and should become willing to sacrifice their own interests for the sake of the entire humanity. Habits of truth must be created so as to create trust which is mortal of all social relations so as to hold the society together.
The present social disorganization in society is from a breakdown in trust that has resulted as a result of demographic changes and the greater opportunities to gain power and position.
To solve the current cultural diversity it is primary important that personal gain must be subordinated to the willingness to commitment to others and the habit of the truth should be cultivated in the extreme. Anthropologist on their part must refrain from any deceitful, insincere, un-genuine, or false social interactions with anyone in the society and must completely be truthful and honest to both themselves and others no matter the situation.
Comparatively holistic account of phenomena and tends to be highly empirical this leads most anthropologists to concentrate their study on a particular place or thing. In studying culture it is important to have a clear clarification of what constitutes a culture, and determine exactly where a certain culture ends and another begins in so doing it will be easy to eliminate issue such as genocides that have rocked different parts of the world.
Cultural anthropologists urge that the quest to study humanity is a quest for scientific objectivity. Ones cultures should not be judged by one culture’s values but all cultures should be viewed as relative to each other so as to eliminate the notions, in good anthropology, of that one culture is better off or worse than another culture. In case such disparities are invited into the society conflicts are bound to erupt.
Anthropologists have urged that people can adapt their culture through environment in non-genetic ways. So people living in different environments automatically acquire different cultures, but the continuous interaction and appreciation between different cultures has led to international connections between people in distinct places. practitioners of cultural anthropology investigate the social organization of a particular group of people by studying their customs, the way of economical life, their political organization and ways in which they resolve conflicts amongst themselves.
Cultural anthropology is basically but the way in which various anthropologists have sufficiently internalized the code so that it has become part of their decision-making process. To effectively approach the matter several approaches to correct this problem can be considered.
Individual should have a greater knowledge of the of the code which creates a unifying ground in the society. Generally some effort should be undertaken to ensure that the contents of the various ethical statements are made more generally known so as to simplify the matter of social conflicts in the society. The efforts can through designing curriculums which ensure that everyone is conversant with the happenings around them and their limits in the society as they interact with their colleques.
Causes of Ethical Conflicts in the Society
Developing proper sensitivity to ethical issues is of greater importance because individuals vary greatly as to whether or not they see a situation or view an experience in moral terms in conflict management. In short, by participating in discussion of ethical concerns it is important to sensitize people to look for these issues and become even more aware of the consequences their own behaviour has on others in an attempt to solve conflicts in the society.
To effectively eliminate social conflict in the society the problem can be mitigated through various ways but not limited to removal, which is the best way to handle conflicts of interests, and which encourages that we should all avoid conflicts entirely. For example, in case an individual notices that by doing certain things they might provoke conflict, then it’s important that adopt other ways of doing the same thing but without being noticed or playing a back role and letting others to act on their behalf and that is what removal is all about. Disclosing either publicly or privately any actual or potential conflict of interest eliminates cases of conflict and its failure to provide full disclosure is a crime. By abiding to the of ethics codes of ethics in the society help to minimize problems with conflicts of interests because they give the extent to which conflicts can be avoided, and what each person can do when confronted with such conflicts.
Surveys on Ethnic Diversity
Survey indicate that peoples have strong attachments to their ethnic and cultural background vary by ethnic group and by the length of time; they have lived in a certain region. This generates as a strong sense of belonging to their ethnic or cultural ancestry and in case if for any reason somebody interferes with their loyalties cultural frictions are bound to erupt due to discrimination or unfair treatment.
A major cause of ethical conflict in the society is the issue of feeling outvoted and under-represented for belonging to minority group; such people find themselves in a total double dilemma because their interests are not well represented in the political sphere. They therefore, tend to suffer disproportionately from a “democratic deficit” because they lack the numbers to influence in many of the political systems. Finally, due to being distressed, disadvantaged and marginalized they are forced to protect the identity through whatever means.
In equality between the rich as well as the poor applied to parties in an unequal condition can have an unequal effect, the unequal effect may be intentional or accidental. Ethnic cleansing which simply means purification of an ethnic group from foreign elements, such as cultural characteristics and traditions is a source of ethical conflict that can result to serious bloodshed among the affected communities. Ethnic cleansing pertains to an overt behavior and action which is usually accompanied with discrimination. Culturally ethnic cleansing implies cultural genocide whose main aim is to suppressed or destroyed other cultures.
Once the situation is consciously perceived, it generates a sense of injustice. Therefore, if minority cultures and social groups have a role to play in the world, then their rights must be actively fostered and reluctantly protected. In fact it is not enough to only protect human rights but there should be the collective rights of minorities who should enjoy such rights, otherwise the minority groups will always be disadvantaged within the wider society and these will constantly result to ethical conflicts.
Respect for the foundational principles of human rights such as non-discrimination between individuals must be the main objective of any government. Individuals should be treated without discrimination on ground of race, ethnicity, religion or national origin in line with the fundamental International Bill of Human Rights.
To be an equal member of any society, individuals must we have equal of identity and should be given equal value. Ethnic background that give us our identity and cultural heritage cannot be ignored without damaging our sense of personal dignity because the liberal value of freedom of choice is cultural reconditions memberships which must be respected and acknowledged by everyone.
Ethical conflict may as well be a case of factors which basically influence the way of thinking of the different ethical groupings within a certain region and in the process result to conflict. Such conflict may turn to genocide if the problems are not addressed, they may include; the colonial ideology of racial division, the economic and political crises, the fragile regional and class base of a political faction determined to hold on to state power at any cost and nature of the society. Such factors are blamed to be the main triggers of the Rwandan genocide.
Ethical conflict is usually possible only when it enjoys some popular support for separate identities among the majority of the populations. It has been argued that ‘racial’ explanations of the genocide are untenable but politics of ethnic identification always plays a central to implementing genocide plans.
Governments in cases of extreme ethical conflict are at times too blame because they fail to execute their mandate to ‘protect the people’ and ended up doing the direct opposite.
In conclusion, the study of humanity is a crucial issue that is affecting ethnic groups throughout the world, and must be handled with a lot of responsibility by analysts and all related interested parties.